Edith Wharton – The Paris Years

Edith Wharton’s relationship with Paris, and all things French, started early.  As a child, she had studied French with a private tutor and she had travelled to Paris with her family as a girl.

When she returned to France in her forties, her French was flawless and she rented an apartment at the exclusive Hotel de Crillon a little way from the Louvre Museum. The hotel had two terraces looking out over Place du Concorde and a grand piano playing in the living room every evening. She had a nice penthouse apartment where she had the sensation of being up in the sky overlooking the whole of Paris.

Hotel de Crillon, Paris
Hotel de Crillon, Paris

Wharton saw the Hôtel de Crillon as a place which welcomed a cultivated set of people.  Wharton herself came from a good “old New York” family. She had money to spend and felt that, here in Paris, an intellectual woman such as herself had a voice.  In America, wealthy women were seen merely as measure of their husband’s success.

In her novel “The Custom of the Country” Wharton spells out how marriage in America puts an end to any notions a woman might have  to develop her cultural interests.  American husbands buy their wives paintings and pretty things in order to distract them from the real business of the day which takes place in the male only board rooms.

Edith Wharton
Edith Wharton

In 1907, Edith Wharton was introduced to William Morton Fullerton by her good friend Henry James. Morton Fullerton was working as a journalist in Paris for the London Times. In a letter to a friend, Wharton states that she found Fullerton to be very intelligent. However, even from the outset, she sensed that he had an air of mysteriousness about him.

Wharton was forty five years old at the time and already an established writer. Her novel, “The House of Mirth” was enjoying great success in America and she was considerably wealthy. Her husband of twenty years, Teddy Wharton, came from a good Bostonian family.

Fullerton, it seems, had a colourful past which  included homosexual relationships, a divorced wife and a blackmailing mistress.

According to Shari Benstock, Fullerton decided to move to Paris leaving “a messy and entangled sexual past” behind him. In London, Fullerton moved in the same upper-class Edwardian society as the writer, Henry James, did. It seems that, with his his overwhelming charm, he attracted a host of friends and lovers.

He was married to opera singer Camille Chabert in 1903. The following year Chabert divorced Fullerton because she could not tolerate his affairs.  He was involved simultaneously with a least two other French women – Adèle Moutot, a minor actress whose stage name was Madame Mirecourt, and Hélène Pouget, an artist’s model from Nîmes.

Fullerton was also having a “quasi-incestuous relationship” with Katherine Fullerton, his adopted sister and cousin right up to the time he met Wharton.

The House of Mirth by Edith Wharton (1905)
The House of Mirth by Edith Wharton (1905)

Continue reading “Edith Wharton – The Paris Years”

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The Paris of Ernest Hemingway

If you are lucky enough to have lived in Paris, it stays with you as Paris is a Moveable Feast

Ernest Hemingway moved to Paris with his wife Hadley shortly after their honeymoon in year 1921.  He had been told by friends back in the states that Paris was the centre of Avant-garde writing.

For Hemingway, Paris was conducive to clear thinking and, according to Noel Riley Fitch,  it was a good place for him to learn the craft of writing. As he walked through the streets and squares of Paris, his  sense of place became strongly linked to his art.

 Jeffrey Meyers describes the young Hemingway as a gentle, introspective and, at times, even quite an  innocent young man when he left his home country for Paris.  It was only in later years that he would become the swaggering and tough character that gained him worldwide fame.

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74 rue Cardinal-Lemoine

Hemingway was intoxicated by the romance of Bohemian life in Paris. The apartment he first rented on rue Cardinal-Lemione was fairly basic by American standards, but the newly married couple wanted their money to last as long as possible.  Also, they preferred to travel and spend an afternoon at the horse races rather than spend money on rent.

In 1922, Hemingway rented a small studio for writing on 39 rue Descartes where French poet, Paul Verlaine, had lived 25 years before.

He rented out the top-floor room for 60 francs a month and he found it a pleasant place to work.  There was a fireplace which kept him warm in the winter, and he would often throw his orange peels into the fire or roast chestnuts there when he was hungry.

From the window, he looked over the roof tops of Paris and this alone kept him motivated to write. In this cheap room, Hemingway wrote short stories about his childhood in Michigan, U.S.A.

studio239 rue Descartes

A MOVEABLE FEAST

In his memoir, “A Moveable Feast“, Hemingway describes how his senses where even more heightened when he was hungry .

You got very hungry when you did not eat enough in Paris because all the bakery shops had such good things in the windows and people ate outside at tables on the sidewalk so that you saw and smelled the food.  When you had given up journalism and were writing nothing that anyone in America would buy, explaining at home that you were lunching out with someone, the best place to go was the Luxembourg gardens where you saw and smelled nothing to eat all the way to Place de L’Obsevatoire to the rue de Vaugirard.

Luxembourg

Luxembourg Gardens

Hemingway would often study the paintings in the museum of the Palais du Luxembourg  and, looking at Cézanne’s paintings in particular, helped him to write better.

As he studied Cézanne’s works, he began to recognise that his writing needed more dimension.  It was not enough to merely write simple sentences.

I learned to understand Cézanne much better and to see truly how he made landscapes when I was hungry.  I used to wonder if he were hungry too when he painted.

Hemingway believed that his hunger was healthy for his writing during these years of poverty living in Paris.

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Hemingway (1933) by Man Ray

Gertrude Stein

Gertrude Stein was a prominent figure in Avant-garde movement of Paris and she had a very important role among the literary circles of Paris.   Hemingway would frequently visit her at her apartment on 27 rue des Fleurus after a day’s writing to talk with her and to ask her opinion about some of the short stories he was thinking of publishing.

He first met Stein when she was in her late forties and, in “A Moveable Feast” he describes her physical appearance:

Miss Stein was very big but not very tall and was heavily built like a peasant woman.  She had beautiful eyes and a strong German-Jewish face that also could have been Friulano and she reminded me of a northern Italian peasant woman with her clothes, her mobile face and her lovely, thick, alive immigrant hair which she wore put up in the same way she probably had worn it in college.

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          Portrait of Gertrude Stein (1906) by Picasso

On the question of money, Stein advised Hemingway that he would do far better if he purchased paintings instead of wasting it on buying fashionable clothes. She told him “buy your clothes for comfort and durability, and you will have the clothes money to buy pictures”. In 1925, Hadley and Hemingway followed her advice and purchased a painting called “The Farm” by Joan Miró.

It was Gertrude Stein who convinced Hemingway to give up his work as a journalist to focus on his writing career.

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                                                               Gertrude Stein’s studio on 27 rue des Fleurus

SHAKESPEARE AND COMPANY

Shakespeare and Company  was a gathering place for writers at the time.  The owner, Sylvia Beach, idolised  James Joyce and managed to get his books published.

Sylvia Beach would let Hemingway buy books on credit and she often showed concern when she thought he wasn’t eating enough.  She introduced Hemingway to Joyce in 1922 and they soon became friends.

Joyce inspired Hemingway in the way he could pare down his work to only the bare essentials and also the way in which he employed the power of suggestion in his writing.

The original premises of Shakespeare and Company was on 11 rue d’Odéon.  The photo below shows were the bookshop is situated today on 37 Rue de la Bûcherie .  It is the city’s most coveted expatriate bookshop.

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Writing was not something which came easily to Hemingway.  It was a “perpetual challenge”, something which could not be taught, it was something one had to learn through long and laborious practice.

Meyers describes how Hemingway saw writing as a “fiercely competitive literary prize fight in which contemporaries pitted themselves against established masters.”`

Erza Pound and James Joyce were Hemingway’s only real friends among the writers he met in Paris.  When Hemingway first met Erza Pound, he had just finished editing the Waste Land. Like Hemingway, Pound was devoted to his writing and they became lifelong friends.

Hemingway regarded a lot of his fellow American artists who frequented the Parisian cafés with suspicion.  He believed them to be posing artists, only content to talk about their future works, never actually putting pen to paper.

He would start his day at the Select Bar eating breakfast before getting down to writing.

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The Select Bar

In 1922, Hadley lost all of Hemingway’s  short story manuscripts when she was on her way to meet meet him in Lausanne for a holiday.  They were stolen from the train when it was stationed at Gare de Lyon.  For a while Hemingway thought he would never write again and the affair was disastrous blow to his marriage.

Once back in Paris, and out of pocket, Hemingway decided that maybe this was the time to turn his attention to writing a full novel.  He describes in “A Moveable Feast” how he decided to hold out as long as possible for doing so,  until the financial pressure became unbearable and when he could no longer afford to feed himself.

Max Ford

Hemingway helped Max Ford to edit the Transatlantic Review. Ford was well known in literary circles (he had been good friends with Henry James) and he had also built a reputation for his fictional achievements and editorial skills. Erza Pound confessed that he had learned more from Ford than anyone else.

Ford published Hemingway’s early stories “Indian Camp”, “The Doctor and the Doctor’s Wife”, “Cross Country Snow”. By the late 1920s  Hemingway started to have his writing published. In 1926, The Torrents of Spring and The Sun Also Rises were published by Charles Scribner’s Sons. In 1927 he published a short story collection, Men Without Women.

The Art World in Paris between the Wars

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                      Coco Channel (1930) by Man Ray

Man Ray

Man Ray arrived in France in 1921 when the bistros and artists’ workshops in Montmartre and Montparnasse were buzzing with artists, writers and poets. He loved the arty world of Paris in which he moved.  His portraits of Picasso, Gertrude Stein, Mina Loy, Peggy Guiggenheim, Coco Channel, Alberto Giacometti propelled him to fame in 1921.

Continue reading “The Art World in Paris between the Wars”

La Nouvelle Athènes Paris

A visit to the Nouvelle Athènes quarter of Paris begins with a visit to the Musée de la vie Romantique, 16 rue Chaptal in the ninth arrondisement of Paris. IMG_0594

The building which houses the museum has retained its original decor and character.  A secluded passage of shaded trees leads to this mansion built in 1830.

It is one of the few homes that still remain in Paris dating back to the days of King Louis-Philippe’s monarchy. The original owner,  Ary Scheffer,  was a romantic Dutch born painter whose painting were inspired by history and literature.

His painting such as Gaston de Foix (1824), Les Femmes souliotes (1828) and Françoise de Rimini  (1835) were influenced by Dante’s “Divine Comedy”.  He also drew inspiration from the writings of Goethe and Effie and Jeanie dans la prison d’Edimbourg was drawn after Walter Scott’s novel “The Heart of Midlothian”. Continue reading “La Nouvelle Athènes Paris”